11 Stages of Node Evolution in Semiconductor Industry: Leading Companies and Advancements

Delve into the intricate stages of Node Evolution, tracing the semiconductor industry's growth from inception to current breakthroughs.


The realm of semiconductor technology has witnessed a spectacular evolution since the advent of transistors in the early 20th century. Transistor nodes, representing the size of the smallest features on a semiconductor chip, have undergone significant transformations over the decades. In this detailed exploration, we will delve into the key milestones, leaders, applications, and technological advancements that have defined the progression of transistor node Evolution in Semiconductor Industry from the early 1970s to the present day.

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The Evolution of Transistor Nodes:

1. 10 µm (1971)

  • Company: Intel
  • Major Application: Early microprocessors, calculators, digital watches
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Introduction of Large-Scale Integration (LSI) circuits.
  • Implementation of PMOS and NMOS transistors.

2. 1 µm (1979)

  • Company: Intel
  • Major Application: Microprocessors, personal computers
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Adoption of self-aligned processes.
  • Introduction of double-layer metallization.
  • Gate oxide scaling for improved performance.

3. 350 nm (1995)

  • Company: Intel
  • Major Application: Pentium processors, high-performance computing, internet infrastructure
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Implementation of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI).
  • Transition to copper interconnects.
  • Emphasis on low-power CMOS design.

4. 90 nm (2004)

  • Company: IBM, AMD
  • Major Application: Dual-core processors, mobile devices, digital cameras
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Introduction of strain engineering techniques.
  • Adoption of high-k metal gates.
  • Integration of immersion lithography for enhanced miniaturization.

5. 45 nm (2007)

  • Company: Intel
  • Major Application: Quad-core processors, smartphones, solid-state drives
  • Technological Advancements:
  • High-density plasma etching techniques.
  • Implementation of double-patterning technology.
  • Adoption of low-k dielectrics for improved energy efficiency.

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6. 22 nm (2012)

  • Company: Intel
  • Major Application: Ultra-low-power devices, tablets, wearables
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Introduction of FinFET technology (3D transistors).
  • Focus on achieving improved performance and energy efficiency.

7. 14 nm (2015)

  • Company: Intel, Samsung
  • Major Application: High-performance gaming, AI, cloud computing
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Multi-patterning lithography techniques.
  • Implementation of 3D interconnect technologies.
  • Optimization of FinFET technology for enhanced transistor density.

8. 10 nm (2017)

  • Company: TSMC
  • Major Application: Flagship smartphones, 5G networking equipment
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Utilization of strained silicon for performance enhancement.
  • Limited use of EUV lithography.
  • Further miniaturization of FinFET transistors.

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9. 7 nm (2018)

  • Company: TSMC
  • Major Application: High-performance laptops, servers, advanced AI
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Wider adoption of EUV lithography.
  • Introduction of cobalt and ruthenium metallization.
  • Early-stage implementation of gate-all-around (GAA) transistors.

10. 5 nm (2020)

  • Company: TSMC, Samsung
  • Major Application: Premium smartphones, high-end gaming, cutting-edge AI
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Increased use of EUV lithography.
  • Further development of GAA transistor technology.
  • Advancements in advanced packaging techniques.

11. 3 nm (2022)

  • Company: TSMC
  • Major Application: Anticipated for next-generation computing, AI, and advanced mobile devices
  • Technological Advancements:
  • Continued adoption and optimization of GAA transistors.
  • Improved EUV lithography resolution.
  • Ongoing process miniaturization and optimization efforts.


The journey through the node Evolution in Semiconductor Industry is a testament to the relentless pursuit of innovation in the semiconductor industry. From the early breakthroughs in 10 µm technology to the anticipated advancements in the 3 nm era, each node has brought about transformative changes in applications, performance, and manufacturing processes. The industry’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of miniaturization and efficiency has paved the way for a future where computing power continues to advance, enabling new possibilities and applications across various domains.

Editorial Team
Editorial Team
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