A New Revolutionary Circuitry Helps to Keep Your Electronics Cool Forever

The thermal transistor manipulates bonds between atoms in a nanoscale channel by sharing electrons, influencing bond strength and heat flow. Researchers, using a nanoscale electrode and electrical field, achieve precise control over heat movement.


Gadgets around us are becoming smaller, faster, and more powerful. However, there’s a persistent challenge that has plagued electronic devices from smartphones to supercomputers: Overheating Circuitry. The excess heat generated by modern computer chips not only poses a threat to the device’s performance but also results in significant energy consumption for cooling purposes.

In fact, more than half of the electricity used in U.S. data centres is dedicated to cooling. This is where a groundbreaking solution comes into play – the thermal transistor.

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Understanding the Overheating Circuitry Problem

As our electronic devices continue to shrink in size, the power density within them has reached levels alarming levels. This microscopic issue, known as “hotspots,” has been a significant hurdle for engineers and physicists aiming to control heat flow effectively.
Hotspots refer to localized areas where there is an excessive concentration of heat.

These microscopic regions can develop within semiconductor components, such as transistors, due to various factors like high current density or uneven power distribution. The challenge with hotspots is that the excess heat generated in these areas can negatively impact device performance, reliability, and lifespan.

To put it into perspective, while we’ve made incredible strides in increasing computing power by squeezing billions of transistors onto a single chip, dealing with the heat generated has become increasingly difficult. Considering excess heat a nuisance, industries often need to channel it away, leading to substantial energy consumption solely for cooling purposes.

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University of California’s Thermal Transistor: Overheating Circuitry

A team of researchers led by Yongjie Hu at the University of California, Los Angeles, might have found the solution to this long-standing problem. In a recent breakthrough reported in the journal Science, they introduced a new type of transistor – the thermal transistor – that has the potential to change the way we manage heat in electronic devices.

While electrical transistors, which control the flow of electricity, have been a staple in electronics since their invention in 1947, dealing with excess heat has remained a significant challenge. The new thermal transistor, however, takes advantage of the basic chemistry of atomic bonding at the single-molecule level to precisely control heat flow.

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How does the Overheating Circuitry get solved?

“Heat is very challenging to manage,” says Yongjie Hu, a physicist and mechanical engineer at the University of California, Los Angeles. “Controlling heat flow has long been a dream for physicists and engineers, yet it’s remained elusive.”

The thermal transistor works by manipulating the bonds between atoms in a nanoscale channel within the device. These bonds, formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms, influence the strength of the bonds and, consequently, how much heat can pass through the atoms. The researchers found that by using a nanoscale electrode that applies an electrical field, they could control the movement of heat with exceptional precision.

Similar to electrical transistors, the thermal transistor consists of two terminals between which heat flows and a third terminal that controls this flow. In this scenario, the electrical field takes charge, actively adjusting interactions between electrons and atoms within the device. This results in changes in thermal conductivity, allowing for the precise control of heat movement.

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Let’s use an analogy to understand this

Imagine you have a water pipe system, and the flow of water represents heat. The challenge is to control and manage this heat flow within the pipes, similar to how engineers want to manage heat in electronic devices.

Now, let’s introduce a device called a “thermal valve,” which is similar to the described thermal transistor. Installed within the pipe system, this thermal valve can precisely regulate the flow of water (heat).

In the analogy:

  1. Water Pipe System: Represents the structure where heat needs to be controlled, akin to the electronic device.
  2. Water Flow: Symbolizes the movement of heat within the system.
  3. Thermal Valve (Thermal Transistor): This is the key component that actively controls the flow of heat. Similar to the electronic thermal transistor, it consists of two openings (terminals) for heat flow and a third component (the electrode) that serves as the control mechanism.
  4. Control Mechanism (Electrical Field): In the analogy, this is represented by a device or mechanism that can adjust the thermal valve. When activated, it can influence the interactions between water molecules (analogous to electrons and atoms) within the pipe system.

How does thermal transistor Solve Overheating Circuitry?

The thermal transistor comprises a gold base layer with a mono-layer of specialized “carboranethiol” molecules linking to a top graphene layer.

The interface between the molecular layer and the gold substrate forms the critical foundation for thermal resistance and switching.

Applying an electric field to a gate terminal controls the operation of the thermal transistor.Researchers can adjust bonding charge distributions and electronic structure at the gold-molecule junction by tuning the field strength. This modulation affects interfacial thermal transport phenomena, determining the heat conduction from the gold substrate through the molecular layer.

The approach of manipulating interface bonding allows for fast switching speeds, cycles, and range improvements compared to existing thermal conductivity tuning methods. These methods often rely on slower molecular motions or deformations. Unlike past prototypes requiring fluid components, microelectromechanical systems, or exotic materials, the team’s design focuses on basic surface science principles applied at accessible solid-state interfaces.

Working of the Thermal Transistor

Image Credits: Science/ Researchgate

The authors present the concept of their thermal switch through a diagram similar to an electronic transistor (Fig. 1A). In this analogy, the device channel is situated between hot and cold thermal reservoirs (TH and TC). A third terminal, acting as the gate, controls thermal conductance and consequently heat flow.

The thermal switch’s microstructure is examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (Fig. 1B and 1C). It reveals a thin-film structure with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of carboranethiol cage molecules on a gold layer, topped by a single-layer graphene serving as the active conduction channel.

The thermal switching mechanism relies on electrical control of atomic bond strengths in the molecular junctions, which regulates thermal conductance. The team measured the thermal conductance (G) per unit area, showing a significant dependence on gate voltage (Vg) applied across the molecular junction (Fig. 1E). The thermal conductance control achieved is more than 1300%, surpassing other electrical modulation demonstrations.

The researchers also tested molecular junctions without graphene, showing ambipolar behavior in thermal conductance (Fig. 1E). To assess device reversibility, they conducted gate switching measurements for up to 1 million cycles, demonstrating highly reversible thermal conductance between on and off states (Fig. 1F). This dynamic and reversible tunability using an electric field showcases the robustness of these molecular thermal devices with high switching ratios.

Implications and Applications

The implications of this breakthrough are immense. The thermal transistor, according to Hu and his colleagues, is already affordable, scalable, and compatible with current industrial manufacturing practices. The thermal transistor could soon find applications in various industries. This includes its use in the production of lithium-ion batteries as thermal management circuitry. It also holds promise for applications in combustion engines, semiconductor systems (like computer chips), and more.

Excitingly, the potential to capture and reuse previously wasted heat emerges as a highlight, with the technical knowhow yet to surface. Electronic devices, from smartphones to supercomputers, face a persistent challenge: Heat-Controlling Circuitry. Currently viewed as a nuisance, the thermal transistor opens the door to harnessing this heat for increased energy efficiency.

Record-Breaking Performance

In experiments, the thermal transistor set records and outperformed other recently engineered thermal transistors by several orders of magnitude. Its design directs cooling power to specific areas at excellent speeds, dampening heat spikes by a remarkable 1,300 percent. ‘Heat spikes’ in this context refer to sudden and temporary increases in temperature within specific areas of a device or system. These spikes can occur due to transient increases in power consumption, rapid changes in workload, or localized thermal hotspots

Integrating the new heat-controlling circuitry

Experts acknowledge the thermal transistor as a major breakthrough but note work is needed before it can “change the world.” Tasks include integrating new heat-controlling circuitry with existing systems, creating fully hybrid electronic-thermal circuitry, and addressing scaling challenges.

The researchers are exploring medical applications, particularly in cancer treatment. Thermal transistors may be crucial for advancing hyperthermia therapy, offering oncologists precise control over heating. This control ensures targeted destruction of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells.


In summary, the development of the thermal transistor marks a significant leap forward in our ability to manage Overheating Circuitry. From preventing overheating in computers to potentially revolutionizing cancer treatment, the applications are vast and promising.

Editorial Team
Editorial Team
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