India’s Quest to Dominate Electronics Manufacturing

India's vision to establish itself as a prominent electronics manufacturing hub has encountered setbacks, as highlighted by Foxconn's recent decision to cancel its semiconductor factory project in Gujarat. To achieve its ambitious export growth targets and compete with nations like Vietnam, India must strike a balance between aspiration and realism.
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India’s aspiration to establish itself as a prominent electronics manufacturing hub has encountered setbacks, such as the recent news of Foxconn canceling plans to build a semiconductor factory in Gujarat. This disappointment highlights the need for India to reassess its ambitions and adopt a more strategic approach. While India’s targets for export growth are ambitious, they fall short when compared to countries like Vietnam. To bridge this gap and achieve its goals, India must focus on opening up to trade, ensuring policy stability, and embracing efficiency in its manufacturing ecosystem.

Balancing Ambition and Realism

India’s plans to create a homegrown electronics manufacturing supply chain were both too ambitious and not ambitious enough. Despite meeting the government’s export growth targets, India still lags behind smaller nations like Vietnam and Thailand in mobile phone-related exports. To catch up, India would need electronics exports to grow by an unprecedented 65% to 75% annually. However, even if India sustains the growth rate it achieved in its previous record year of 2015, it will take years to reach the current level of Vietnam. Balancing ambition with a realistic assessment of the situation is crucial.

The Need for Trade and Stability

To raise and meet its ambitions, India must prioritize trade and provide a stable policy environment. While most emerging countries focus on attracting investment, facilitating trade, and improving operational conditions, India has simultaneously imposed higher tariffs, leading to increased costs throughout the electronics supply chain. These costlier inputs result in higher prices for Indian phones, making them less competitive. By reducing tariffs to levels similar to those of Vietnam, India’s mobile phones could become more competitive by around 4%. This highlights the importance of creating an enabling environment for manufacturers through reduced tariffs and increased trade openness.

Less Reliance on Subsidies and More Focus on Efficiency

India should move away from an overreliance on subsidies and instead emphasize efficiency and competitiveness. Subsidies alone cannot overcome India’s commercial and competitive disadvantages. Instead, the government needs to foster an ecosystem that supports end-to-end supply chains, which are complex and require stability and trust. For instance, semiconductor fabrication plants need reliable water supplies, while efficient ports are essential for handset assembly. Additionally, low and stable tariffs on key inputs are crucial for the growth of electronics manufacturers. By shifting the focus from subsidies to efficiency, India can address its challenges more effectively.

The Lessons from the Foxconn Fiasco

Foxconn’s withdrawal from the Gujarat semiconductor plant project highlights the importance of financial incentives, policy stability, and trust. While Foxconn remains committed to manufacturing in India, the cancellation emphasizes the need for a conducive business environment. The Indian government must understand the specific requirements of manufacturers and investors, such as reliable infrastructure and low tariffs. It is essential to provide a policy framework that ensures stability and trust, enabling companies to make long-term investment decisions confidently.

Moving Forward: Embracing Openness and Efficiency

To correct past mistakes and achieve its ambitions, India should pursue free-trade deals, such as with the European Union, and adopt a trade policy that resembles that of successful nations like Vietnam and Thailand. India must prioritize openness to investment and imports, allowing for the integration of global value chains. Industrial policy alone cannot spur the rapid development of end-to-end supply chains. Instead, India should focus on creating an efficient and competitive manufacturing ecosystem that attracts both domestic and foreign players.


India’s dream of becoming a prominent electronics manufacturing hub requires a reassessment of its strategies and policies. While the ambition is commendable, the country must balance its aspirations with realism. Emphasizing trade, policy stability, and efficiency over protectionism and subsidies will enable India to compete globally and attract investments. By embracing openness and learning from successful models like Vietnam and Thailand, India can pave the way for its own success in the electronics manufacturing sector. With the right approach, India has the potential to surpass not only Vietnam but also global manufacturing giants like China.

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