TSMC’s US Expansion: A Boon or a Burden?

TSMC's expansion into the United States has been a slow and bumpy process. This post provides a timeline of the controversies and delays that have occurred along the way, as well as some of the potential benefits and drawbacks of the company's plans.
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Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), the world’s largest semiconductor foundry, embarked on an ambitious journey to establish a foothold in the United States. The company’s plans to build state-of-the-art chip manufacturing plants in Arizona promised to boost the American semiconductor industry, but it has not been without its share of challenges and controversies. In this blog post, we will delve into the detailed timeline of TSMC’s activities in the US and explore the environmental, labor, and national security concerns that have surrounded its expansion.

2020: Announcement of the Arizona Plant

In 2020, TSMC sent ripples through the tech industry by announcing its plan to construct a $12 billion chip manufacturing plant in Phoenix, Arizona. The plant aimed to produce cutting-edge 5 nm chips and was anticipated to be operational by 2024. However, environmental groups voiced concerns about potential air quality implications, casting a shadow over the project.

2021: Groundbreaking Amidst Pandemic

The following year, TSMC commenced construction on the Arizona chip plant. However, progress faced setbacks due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, which disrupted supply chains and slowed down construction processes worldwide.

Read more: TSMC and Arizona Take Action to Protect Workers in Semiconductor Manufacturing

2022: A Boost for Growing Demand

As the global chip shortage intensified, TSMC responded by investing an additional $3.5 billion in the Arizona plant. The semiconductor industry’s growing demand prompted the company to expand its capacity, aiming to alleviate the ongoing chip supply crisis.

2023: Second Chip Plant and Workforce Woes

In 2023, TSMC took a significant step by initiating construction of a second chip plant in Arizona. The new facility would manufacture 3 nm chips and bolster TSMC’s presence in the US. However, the company faced delays in finding sufficient skilled workers to staff both plants, hindering progress.

2024: The First Plant Becomes Operational

The long-awaited moment arrived in 2024 when TSMC’s first chip plant in Arizona was scheduled to become operational. Despite the milestone, concerns about its potential impact on air quality persisted and demanded close monitoring.

2025: The Second Plant Comes Online

The second chip plant’s opening in 2025 marked another milestone in TSMC’s US expansion. However, workforce challenges continued to plague the company, leading to further delays in full-scale production.

Controversies Surrounding TSMC’s Expansion

Environmental Concerns

TSMC’s chip plants are resource-intensive, requiring substantial amounts of water and energy to operate. This raised environmental concerns, particularly regarding air quality and emissions. Addressing these worries became crucial to maintain a sustainable approach to semiconductor manufacturing.

Labor Exploitation

TSMC faced criticism in the past for alleged labor exploitation at some of its facilities in Asia. Reports of long working hours, low pay, and unsafe conditions raised questions about the company’s commitment to fair labor practices in its US operations.

National Security Implications

As a major supplier of chips to the US military, TSMC’s expansion into the United States sparked national security concerns. The company’s close ties to the American defense sector raised fears of potential vulnerabilities to cyberattacks or espionage.


TSMC’s foray into the United States has been a complex journey filled with challenges and controversies. Despite facing delays and environmental scrutiny, the company remains steadfast in its commitment to bolster the American semiconductor industry. With two state-of-the-art chip plants in Arizona, TSMC aims to play a pivotal role in meeting the growing demand for cutting-edge semiconductors, potentially enhancing the nation’s technological prowess and economic competitiveness in the global market. Nevertheless, it is essential for TSMC to address the environmental, labor, and national security concerns raised by stakeholders and strive for sustainable and responsible growth as it continues to leave a lasting imprint on the US semiconductor landscape.

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