What are Top Foundries: Tech node Capability & Applications

As technology nodes get smaller, the individual transistors on a chip become smaller and more densely packed. This miniaturization allows for shorter distances for electrical signals to travel, resulting in faster processing speeds and improved overall performance of the device.


As technology evolves, the semiconductor industry remains a dynamic force, with the Applications residing in semiconductor Tech node. These nodes dictate the minimum size of transistors, influencing the speed and efficiency of chips. In this SEO-optimized blog post, we delve into the latest advancements across various technology nodes, spotlighting top companies and their capabilities.

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Why Tech node matters for Applications

A technology node in the context of semiconductor manufacturing refers to the minimum size of transistors that can be produced using a specific semiconductor fabrication process. The size of these transistors is a critical factor in determining the overall performance, power efficiency, and capabilities of the integrated circuits (ICs) or chips produced.

Here’s how technology nodes are related to better devices:

Miniaturization and Performance:

As technology nodes get smaller, the individual transistors on a chip become smaller and more densely packed. This miniaturization allows for shorter distances for electrical signals to travel, resulting in faster processing speeds and improved overall performance of the device.

Power Efficiency:

Smaller transistors generally require less power to switch between states. This means that devices built using smaller technology nodes are often more power-efficient. This is particularly crucial for mobile devices where power consumption directly impacts battery life.

Heat Dissipation:

Smaller transistors also generate less heat during operation. Improved heat dissipation is essential for high-performance computing devices, as excessive heat can lead to thermal throttling and degrade the performance of the device.

Increased Functionality:

Smaller technology nodes enable semiconductor manufacturers to pack more transistors onto a single chip. This increased transistor count allows for the integration of more complex circuits, enabling devices to offer advanced features, increased memory, and enhanced computational capabilities.

Cost Efficiency:

While there are significant research and development costs associated with advancing to smaller technology nodes, the increased efficiency in production can lead to cost savings over time. Smaller nodes often allow manufacturers to produce more chips per silicon wafer, reducing the cost per unit.

Compatibility and Form Factor:

Devices built using smaller technology nodes can be more compact and lightweight, contributing to the design of sleeker and more portable devices. Additionally, advancements in technology nodes often lead to improved compatibility with other components, facilitating the integration of diverse features in a single device.

Read more: 4 Reasons Why Big Tech Companies are Designing their Silicon Chips?

How Tech nodes are finding applications in Cutting edge Applications

Let’s provide examples illustrating the impact of technology nodes on different devices:

High-Performance Computing (HPC):

  • Example: Supercomputers, such as those used for scientific simulations, weather modeling, and complex data analysis.
  • Technology Node Influence: Smaller technology nodes contribute to faster processing speeds, allowing HPC systems to handle massive calculations more efficiently.

Artificial Intelligence (AI):

  • Example: AI accelerators or processors used in machine learning applications, like image recognition and natural language processing.
  • Technology Node Influence: Advanced technology nodes enable the creation of AI chips with increased parallel processing capabilities, enhancing the speed and efficiency of AI computations.

Mobile Devices (e.g., iPhone 15):

  • Example: High-end smartphones with advanced features and capabilities.
  • Technology Node Influence: Smaller nodes contribute to improved performance, power efficiency, and enable the integration of advanced features like high-resolution cameras, augmented reality applications, and faster processing.

Budget Smartphones:

  • Example: Entry-level smartphones designed for cost-conscious consumers.
  • Technology Node Influence: The use of larger technology nodes, such as 14-28 nm, helps keep manufacturing costs lower while still providing sufficient performance for basic smartphone functions.

Automotive Electronics:

  • Example: In-vehicle control units (ECUs), sensors, and entertainment systems in modern cars.
  • Technology Node Influence: Depending on the application, a range of technology nodes may be used. Smaller nodes contribute to enhanced processing power for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), while larger nodes can be sufficient for less demanding applications.

Internet of Things (IoT) Devices:

  • Example: Smart home devices, wearables, and connected sensors.
  • Technology Node Influence: Larger nodes (e.g., 28-130 nm) are commonly used in IoT devices where power efficiency and cost-effectiveness are prioritized over the need for the latest processing power.

Read More: What is 2D, 2.5D & 3D Packaging of Integrated Chips?

Top Foundries with their Tech node capabilities and Applications

1. 3 nm – Powering Tomorrow’s Tech Marvels:

At the forefront of semiconductor technology, the 3 nm node is breaking barriers. Dominated by industry giants TSMC and Samsung Electronics, this cutting-edge technology has applications in high-performance computing (HPC) and artificial intelligence (AI). It’s also set to power the upcoming generation of high-end mobile devices, including the much-anticipated iPhone 15.

2. 4-10 nm – Striking the Balance:

Balancing performance and efficiency, the 4-10 nm range is a technological sweet spot. TSMC, Samsung Electronics, and Intel lead the charge in this space, shaping the future of high-performance computing, AI, and catering to mid-range and high-end mobile devices.

3. 14-28 nm – Empowering Everyday Devices:

Bridging the gap for everyday devices, the 14-28 nm technology nodes play a pivotal role in budget smartphones, low-power devices, and automotive electronics. TSMC, Intel, Samsung Electronics, and GlobalFoundries contribute significantly to advancements in this range.

4. 28-130 nm – Fuelling the IoT Revolution:

Enabling the Internet of Things (IoT), the 28-130 nm technology nodes are instrumental in embedded systems, IoT devices, and wearables. Companies like TSMC, Intel, Samsung Electronics, and GlobalFoundries refine their processes to meet the demands of an increasingly interconnected world.

Read More: 8 Major Steps of Semiconductor Fabrication

Tech NodeCompanyMoatApplications
3 nmTSMC, Samsung ElectronicsSpearheading the forefront of semiconductor miniaturizationHigh-performance computing (HPC), AI, High-end mobile devices (e.g., iPhone 15)
4-10 nmTSMC, Samsung Electronics, IntelBalancing performance and efficiency in semiconductor manufacturingHigh-performance computing (HPC), AI, Mid to high-range mobile devices
14-28 nmTSMC, Intel, Samsung Electronics, GlobalFoundriesBridging the gap for everyday devices, budget smartphones, and automotive electronicsBudget smartphones, low-power devices, Automotive electronics
28-130 nmTSMC, Intel, Samsung Electronics, GlobalFoundries, etc.Enabling the Internet of Things (IoT) revolution and supporting embedded systemsEmbedded systems, IoT devices, Wearables, etc.
Tech node and their applications

Read more: Top 5 Foundries: Market Share, Moat & Country of Operation


The semiconductor industry’s relentless pursuit of smaller technology nodes has ushered in groundbreaking innovations powering our digital world. Companies such as TSMC, Samsung Electronics, Intel, and GlobalFoundries are leading the charge, each contributing to different facets of semiconductor manufacturing.

This collaborative effort underscores the industry’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of what is possible in semiconductor manufacturing. Stay tuned for the next wave of technological marvels!

Editorial Team
Editorial Team
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