Semiconductor market

What is a Fab Lite Model: Advatages and Comparison with Other Models

The FAB-LITE model has emerged as a solution to address the growing need for semiconductor products in industries facing capacity constraints.
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In the ever-evolving landscape of the semiconductor industry, companies are continuously adapting their business models to meet the demands of technological advancements and market dynamics.

One such transformative approach gaining prominence is the FAB-LITE semiconductor fabrication model. In this blog post, we’ll delve into the intricacies of the FAB-LITE model, its significance, and the benefits it brings to semiconductor-dependent industries.

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Understanding Semiconductor Business Models:

Before exploring the FAB-LITE model, it’s essential to grasp the existing semiconductor business models. Traditionally, three primary models have defined the design and fabrication landscape:

Pure-Play FAB: Companies invest solely in semiconductor fabrication plants to turn designs into silicon products. Examples include TSMC and GlobalFoundries.

FAB-LESS: This model allows companies to focus exclusively on semiconductor product design, without owning fabrication plants. Qualcomm and AMD are notable examples.

Integrated Device Manufacturer (IDM): A mix of Pure-Play and FAB-LESS, IDM companies own semiconductor fabrication and testing facilities catering to in-house developed products. Intel, Samsung, and Texas Instruments fall into this category.

Read More: Explained: What the hell IDM, Fabless, or Fab-Lite model?

The Emergence of FAB-LITE:

The semiconductor chip shortage, particularly impacting industries like automotive, has prompted a reevaluation of the existing business models. The FAB-LITE model has emerged as a solution to address the growing need for semiconductor products in industries facing capacity constraints.

Key Features of FAB-LITE:

  1. Focused Technology-Nodes: Unlike Pure-Play FABs, which often prioritize advanced technology-nodes, FAB-LITE concentrates on specific, older, and higher technology-nodes (>14nm) that remain in high demand in industries like aerospace, automotive, shipping, and defense.
  2. Cost Optimization: FAB-LITE aims at cost optimization by either building semiconductor fabrication facilities from scratch for companies heavily dependent on semiconductors or acquiring older FABs. This approach ensures a low-cost solution for industries that previously did not venture into semiconductor manufacturing.
  3. Industry-Specific Capacity: Tailored to cater to the needs of specific industries, FAB-LITE allows companies to secure semiconductor fabrication capacity without depending solely on advanced technology-nodes.

Read More: Top 10 Countries with Highest R&D Share of Their GDP

Benefits of FAB-LITE:

  1. Cycle Time: In-house production through FAB-LITE minimizes delays in product development, ensuring alignment with companies’ expectations and execution plans.
  2. Low CAPEX: FAB-LITE focuses on older and higher technology-nodes, requiring less capital compared to advanced nodes. Acquiring existing FABs further reduces initial investment costs.
  3. Supply Chain Control: In-house FAB-LITE provides control over inventory, facilitating an effective supply chain and reducing in-house fabrication expenditures.
  4. Global Competition: FAB-LITE allows semiconductor-dependent companies to control product development in a market increasingly reliant on semiconductors, preventing losses due to product launch delays.
  5. Process Development: By driving in-house technology-node research and development, FAB-LITE fosters innovation and the development of new, cost-effective processes.
  6. High Demand and Capacity: FAB-LITE is well-suited to meet the high demand and capacity requirements of products relying on older/higher technology-nodes, balancing the semiconductor needs of various industries.

Read More: Why these 14 Companies Are Poised to Explode AI Chip Market to $300B by 2030

Comparison of All 4 Models:

AspectFablessPure-Play FABIDM (Integrated Device Manufacturer)FAB-LITE
DefinitionFocuses on semiconductor design, not manufacturing.Invests only in semiconductor fabrication plants.Mix of Pure-Play and FAB-LESS, owns fabrication facilities.A model allowing in-house semiconductor manufacturing.
Strengths– Innovation in design.– Control over the entire manufacturing process.– In-house control of fabrication and testing facilities.– Cost optimization.
– Lower capital expenditure.– Expertise in fabrication technology.– Potential for efficient in-house development.– Industry-specific capacity.
– Faster time-to-market for designs.– Capability to produce cutting-edge technology.– Ability to adapt to varying technological needs.– Flexible technology-nodes for specific industries.
– Potential for economies of scale.– Independence from external foundries.– Lower dependency on advanced technology-nodes.
Weaknesses– Dependency on external fabrication facilities.– High capital expenditure to build and run fabrication.– Risk of overcapacity or underutilization.– Limited to older and higher technology-nodes.
– May face production delays due to foundry constraints.– Limited flexibility in technology-nodes.– May face challenges in adapting to rapid changes.– Not suitable for cutting-edge technology.
– May require collaboration for certain technologies.– Potential for higher costs associated with in-house fab.– May need upgrading as market demands evolve.
Applications– Suitable for design-focused companies.– Applicable to companies with large-scale production.– Wide range of industries due to in-house capabilities.– Industry-specific applications with older nodes.
– Common in emerging markets and startups.– Common in established semiconductor companies.– Dominant in traditional semiconductor companies.– Ideal for industries facing capacity constraints.
ExamplesQualcomm, AMDTSMC, GlobalFoundriesIntel, Samsung, Texas InstrumentsCustomized solutions for automotive, aerospace, etc.

Read More: Intel Most Advanced Process 18A to Enter Test Production by Early 2024


The semiconductor industry, propelled by the FAB-LITE model, is witnessing a paradigm shift. As industries face semiconductor chip shortages and evolving technological demands, FAB-LITE emerges as a strategic and cost-effective solution.

Whether for automotive, defense, or aerospace applications, the FAB-LITE model presents a compelling proposition for companies seeking to secure semiconductor fabrication capacity and ensure a stable supply chain.

In conclusion, the FAB-LITE model not only addresses the immediate challenges posed by the semiconductor chip shortage but also paves the way for a more resilient and adaptable semiconductor industry in the future.

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