How the SCL Fire destroyed India’s Semiconductor Dreams

In 1989, a fire at the Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL) in Mohali, Chandigarh, destroyed the facility's main production line, which was capable of manufacturing 64K dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips. The damage was estimated to be worth Rs. 60 crore (US$10 million).


India’s dream of becoming a global leader in semiconductor manufacturing was conceived back in 1976 when the government approved the formation of Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL) to drive the country’s ambitions in the electronics industry. SCL aimed to design and manufacture cutting-edge circuits and electronics, serving as the foundation for a native Indian electronics industry. However, this dream was met with setbacks and challenges, culminating in a devastating fire that struck the SCL facility in Mohali on February 7, 1989, causing heavy losses to the tune of Rs 60 crore. Let’s delve deeper into the journey of India’s semiconductor aspirations and the impact of the tragic fire incident.

The Birth of Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL)

In the early 1980s, SCL started its operations in Mohali as a 100% state-owned enterprise, producing semiconductors with the advantage of being relatively close in technology to the rest of the world. The stage was set for India to make significant strides in the semiconductor industry and potentially emerge as a global player.

The Mysterious Fire Incident

On February 7, 1989, tragedy struck when a mysterious fire broke out at the SCL facility in Mohali. The fire caused extensive damage to imported equipment and facilities, estimated to be worth Rs 60 crore. The Intelligence Bureau (IB) was called in to investigate the cause of the fire, but no conclusive findings were reported. While the SCL employee’s union ruled out internal sabotage, it pointed out mismanagement and a lack of initiative from the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) as factors that hindered fire control efforts.

The cause of the fire was never officially determined, but there are a number of theories. Some believe that the fire was accidental, while others believe that it was deliberately set. There is also some speculation that the fire was linked to the ongoing Cold War between India and Pakistan.

Before the fire

Before the devastating fire of February 7, 1989, Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL) had achieved significant milestones in its journey towards becoming a global semiconductor manufacturer. Despite being a state-owned enterprise, SCL managed to make impressive progress and was considered just one node behind the rest of the world in semiconductor technology during the early 1980s.

Before the fire, SCL was India’s only major semiconductor manufacturing company. It had a production line capable of manufacturing 64K dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips, and it was planning to expand its production capacity to meet the growing demand for semiconductors in India.

SCL was also involved in research and development, and it was working on developing more advanced semiconductor technologies. It had a number of partnerships with foreign companies, and it was hoping to attract more foreign investment.

The fire at SCL in 1989 was a major setback for the company. The production line was destroyed, and it took several years for SCL to recover. The fire also damaged India’s semiconductor industry as a whole, and it took many years for India to regain its position as a major player in the global semiconductor market.

Despite the setback, SCL continued to operate after the fire. It eventually resumed production of DRAM chips, and it also began to manufacture other types of semiconductors. However, SCL never regained its pre-fire status as a leading manufacturer of semiconductors.

Aftermath and Attempted Recovery

Following the devastating fire, there were assurances from the government that SCL would soon return to production. The then Minister of State for Science & Technology, KR Narayanan, promised to introduce new technology and ensured no retrenchment of employees. However, despite these reassurances, it took a painstaking eight years for the facility to restart operations in 1997.

Struggles and Stalled Progress

The delay in resuming operations took a toll on SCL’s progress, and the government’s attempts to sell a part of its equity in 2000 were unsuccessful due to disagreements with potential private investors over terms. Delays in decision-making by successive governments also contributed to the hindrance of India’s semiconductor dreams.

Rebirth as Semiconductor Lab

In 2006, the government decided to restructure the company as a research & development center within the Department of Space, renaming it “Semiconductor Lab.” This move signified a shift in focus towards research and development in the semiconductor domain rather than large-scale manufacturing.

If the fire didn’t happen?

If the fire at SCL had never happened, it is likely that India’s semiconductor industry would be much more developed today. SCL was a leading manufacturer of DRAM chips at the time of the fire, and it had the potential to become a major player in the global semiconductor market.

Without the fire, SCL would have been able to continue to develop its manufacturing capabilities and expand its product line. This would have led to increased investment in the Indian semiconductor industry, and it would have created jobs and opportunities for Indian engineers and scientists.

In addition, India would have been able to reduce its dependence on imported semiconductors. This would have made the Indian economy more resilient to external shocks, and it would have helped to boost India’s manufacturing sector.

Of course, it is impossible to say for sure what would have happened if the fire had never happened. However, it is clear that the fire was a major setback for India’s semiconductor industry, and it is likely that the industry would be much more developed today if the fire had never occurred.

Here are some specific ways in which India’s semiconductor industry might have developed if the fire had never happened:

  • India would have been able to produce more of its own semiconductors, reducing its reliance on imports.
  • India would have been able to develop more advanced semiconductor technologies, making it a more attractive destination for foreign investment.
  • India’s semiconductor industry would have created more jobs, boosting the economy and helping to improve living standards.


India’s dream of becoming a global semiconductor leader began with the formation of Semiconductor Complex Limited in 1976. While it showed promising prospects in the early 1980s, the devastating fire incident in 1989 halted progress and caused significant setbacks. Despite numerous challenges, India continued to strive towards semiconductor research and development. Though the dream of being a major semiconductor manufacturing powerhouse has not fully materialized, the resilience and commitment to innovation remain strong as India aims to secure its position in the global semiconductor landscape. The journey continues, and the semiconductor industry’s future in India remains a story yet to be fully written.

Editorial Team
Editorial Team
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